The Hasmonaean Dynasty 166 – 37 BC

The Hasmonean dynasty(/hæzməˈniːən/, Hebrew: חשמונאים‎ Hashmonayim) was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity. Between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE, the dynasty ruled semi-autonomously from the Seleucids in the region of Judea. From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded in to the neighbouring regions of Galilee, Iturea, Perea, Idumea and Samaria, and took the title “basileus”. Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. In 63 BCE, the kingdom was conquered by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. The Kingdom had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian Dynasty in 37 BCE. Even then, Herod the Great tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess, Mariamne, and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace.

Judas Maccabaeus, “Hammer of God”

Hasmonaean Dynasty

166 – 160 BC          Judas Maccabaeus

160 – 143 BC         Jonathandeposed

143 – 135 BC          Simon

135 – 104 BC          Hyrcanus I (John)

104 – 103 BC          Aristobulus I (Judas)

103 – 76 BC            Alexander Jannaeus (Jonathan)

76 – 67 BC              Alexandra (Salome)

67 BC                       Hyrcanus II (John) – deposed

67 – 63 BC              Aristobulus II (Judas)

63 – 40 BC             Hyrcanus II (John) – restored

40 – 37 BC             Antigonus (Mattathias)

37 BC                      Herodian conquest of Judaea


Alexander Jannaeus